Investors would be easily forgiven for exhibiting elements of fear and trepidation when it comes to investing in stockmarkets. History has taught us that investing, in particular the equity genre, is laden with episodes of crises, crashes and volatility.
Although many investors have heard of the tax-efficient Enterprise Investment Scheme (EIS); many will be less familiar with Social Investment Tax Relief (SITR). SITR was introduced by the UK government in 2014 after extensive consultations with stakeholders in social enterprise. The overriding objective of these investments is to support social initiatives seeking external finance, by providing tax relief to private individuals who invest in them. Thereby, helping to fill the ‘funding gap’ for social enterprises.
People in the UK are living longer than ever before. This is good news, but it brings with it a multitude of problems. The Alzheimer’s Society report that there are 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, with numbers set to rise to over 1 million by 2025. With these eye watering figures in mind, it is becoming increasingly important that you make clear what should happen in the event that you lose capacity to manage your own affairs.
With increasing challenges facing many millennials, the desire for parents and grandparents to provide financially for their children/grandchildren’s future is becoming more important. This should be a relatively simple exercise, but in practice there are several issues and investment vehicles to consider before deciding on the final solution.
Plastics and their pollutive consequences have recently garnered a huge amount of media attention – and with good reason. Since its foray into mainstream use in the 1950s, global plastic consumption has expanded at a rate far exceeding our ability to effectively manage the waste it produces. This is now a major environmental issue. Plastic consumption has risen to the same inauspicious level as climate change when discussing the world’s most pressing ecological concerns.
Few investors would refute the fact that the positive global macroeconomic environment over the last few years has been extremely favourable for equity markets. 2017 alone provided the model backdrop of synchronised global growth on a consistent upward trajectory, rebounding international trade, benign inflation, surging corporate profitability, and well-articulated messages from global central banks regarding their intentions on policy tightening and interest rate hikes. It was a ‘Goldilocks’ scenario; a unique period, the first of its kind since the financial crisis. Growth was strong, but not so hot that it caused rampant inflation, nor too cold that it resulted in a slowdown, or even recession. Renewed optimism in the previously unloved bull market, alongside recovering corporate earnings, pushed many markets to new highs and financial market volatility to unprecedented lows.
It’s that time of year again… The run-up to the tax year end on 5th April 2018 provides an opportunity to finalise your affairs for the 2017/18 tax year. We outline below the easiest ways to ensure your finances are managed tax efficiently:
The ISA allowance of £20,000 per tax year provides a great opportunity to move funds into a tax free environment. This can be funded from cash or by recycling investments in your general investment account, potentially also utilising part of your Capital Gains Tax allowance.
A Flexible ISA allows you to replace any funds withdrawn within the same tax year without it counting as part of
the annual allowance.
Finally, you can also make provision for children under 18 using the Junior ISA. You can contribute up to the £4,128 allowance which cannot be accessed until the child turns 18.
Pensions are extremely tax efficient benefitting from: tax relief on the contribution (of up to 45%, 20% upfront with the balance via your tax return); tax free growth; 25% tax free cash entitlement on retirement; and exemption from your estate for inheritance tax purposes.
Current UK legislation allows you to contribute up to 100% of your UK earnings each tax year and receive tax relief, up to the annual allowance of £40,000 (gross). Unused allowances from the preceding three tax years can potentially be “carried forward”.
However, there are also complexities with pension regulations affecting high earners with earnings in excess of £150,000, whose allowance may be reduced to £10,000 and those whose total pension assets are likely to exceed the Lifetime Allowance, currently £1M. It is therefore important to seek advice to ensure you benefit from the expected tax efficiencies.
Capital Gains Tax (CGT) is payable on your total capital gains above the tax-free allowance of £11,300. The CGT rate on investments is 10% for basic rate and 20% for higher rate taxpayers. For properties other than your primary residence, the rate is increased to 18% and 28% respectively. Using this allowance annually can save tax on investments of up to £4,520 for a couple liable to higher rate tax, enabling portfolio optimisation and ISA funding.
Philanthropic donations benefit both the donor and recipient. Many people are familiar with Gift Aid, but even more efficient is the gifting of investments. The donation is deducted from your taxable income, exempt from CGT and is immediately outside of your estate for IHT purposes.
You are able to gift £3,000 annually which is exempt from IHT. You can carry forward any unused exemption from the previous tax year so could gift up to £6,000. Gifts out of surplus income are also exempt provided they meet certain criteria.
Those with income falling between £100,000 and £123,000 suffer a punitive effective tax charge of 60% due to the loss of your tax free personal allowance. Making pension contributions or charitable gifts can reclaim the personal allowance by adjusting your effective income.
A further, higher risk option to potentially consider once other allowances are used are Venture Capital Trusts, Enterprise Investment Schemes, Seed Enterprise Investment Schemes, and Social Investment Tax Relief. They offer substantial tax incentives to encourage investment into small companies. On top of income relief of 30% (50% for SEIS), VCTs benefit from tax free dividends, while EISs shelter CGT and are IHT efficient once held for 2 years. They are only suitable for certain investors who can tolerate high risk to their capital and are planning to invest for at least 5 years.
For more information, please contact your existing adviser or if not yet a client, please do not hesistate to get in touch.
When we meet our clients, some of the most common questions we are asked are:
- When can I afford to retire and how much can I spend?
- How much do I need to save to meet my desired lifestyle in retirement?
- What level of return do I need to meet my desired lifestyle in retirement?
- How much risk do I need to take with my investments?
- Can I afford a large capital expense such as a new car, or make gifts to family?
- Can I meet my goals if my investments don’t perform as well as expected?
- How would my family cope if I am unable to work, or if I die prematurely?
For those of a benevolent persuasion, it may be troubling to learn that according to the recently published CAF (Charities Aid Foundation) World Giving Index, there has been a global decrease in giving over the last 12 months. This follows a high point recorded by the same index last year. The proportion of people across the world who reported donating money in 2016 (when the research for this year’s report was conducted) is the lowest seen for three years. The UK which has for some years been the most generous country in Europe, according to the Index, fell from 1st to 2nd place in Europe.
At Holden & Partners we have always advocated that clients, when appropriate (and if they have a particular charitable interest), maximise the generous reliefs available for charitable gifting. As you may or may not know, there are a number of ways that allow individuals to give to their favourite causes whilst at the same time benefitting from the generous tax concessions on offer. The main ways of facilitating charitable giving for individuals are as follows:
Donate money to charity
If you give money and sign a Gift Aid declaration, the charity can reclaim the basic rate tax you’ve already paid on that donation. This means that a £1 donation is worth £1.25 to the charity.
If you’re a higher-rate taxpayer and fill in a Self Assessment tax return form, you can also claim back the difference between higher rate and basic rate tax on the value of your donation. For a 40% rate taxpayer, that means for every £1 you donate, you can claim back 25p in tax relief.
Give straight from your salary
If your employer has a payroll giving scheme, such as Give As You Earn, you can give directly to charity from your pay before tax is deducted. This means you receive tax relief at your highest rate of tax, so giving £1 would cost a basic rate taxpayer only 80p.
Transferring/gifting shares or units in an investment fund to a charity If you own shares or units in an investment fund, you can sell them and give the proceeds to charity via Gift Aid. Alternatively, and significantly more tax efficiently, you can give your shares directly to a charity. However the shares will need to be listed on a recognised stock exchange to be accepted by the charity. Giving shares is highly tax-effective, as donors receive full tax relief on any capital gains tax and can also claim income tax relief on the fair market value of the shares. For example, if you own units in a fund worth £20,000, have gross taxable income of £20,000, and gift the units to charity, you could reduce your tax liability through charitable giving to zero. If the units had previously gained in value by £15,000, for example, since they were purchased, there would be no capital gains tax to pay on the disposal. These gifted funds are also out of your estate for inheritance purposes.
Many clients at Holden & Partners, with our assistance, have set up a general charity account to help facilitate charitable giving. Crucially, such a charitable account offers individuals flexibility over giving whilst also providing the ability to benefit from all the aforementioned tax reliefs. Shares can be gifted to the account, with tax reliefs received, whilst the individual then has the freedom to select a particular charity to which the funds should go and when. The account can have a cash balance from previous transfers so the individual can select a cause close to their heart when the time arises. The account can be topped up with further transfers or payments and can be held by the client indefinitely.
Charitable bequests through your Will
If you do not want to or cannot make gifts to charity in your lifetime, an alternative is to make provision for charitable bequests in your will. Significantly, such bequests are not liable to Inheritance Tax (IHT). If you leave more than 10% of your net estate to charity the rate of IHT falls from 40% to 36%.
Give land and property
Giving land and property direct to charity, like gifting shares and fund units, is also exempt from capital gains tax and inheritance tax, and income tax relief can be claimed on the value of the gift.
The UK taxation system, due to the tax reliefs on offer, effectively encourages charitable giving and it will be interesting to see whether the fall in charitable giving across the world and in the UK is a long-term trend. At a time when many charities in the UK have suffered from government cuts to their funding, this is a major concern, especially for all those who depend on the services and support they provide. Facilitating charitable giving is an important aspect of the service we provide to our clients; so if you have any further questions on this area, please speak to your adviser. As you can see, when it comes to charitable giving, the benefits of being benevolent are both altruistic and financial.
MIFID II is the latest re-incarnation of European-wide legislation aimed at increasing transparency in markets and providing improved client protection. It becomes effective on January 3rd, 2018. The main areas in which clients will see a change in the way that they invest, and how Holden & Partners addresses these issues are as follows:
- Record of conversations – whenever your adviser has a conversation with you regarding your investments or financial planning strategy, a recording of that conversation will be made and retained.
- Transaction reporting – financial planning firms will be required to make a report of all transactions made by clients that fall within the scope of the new legislation. To do this all investors will need a Legal Entity Identifier (LEI).
For individuals, this will normally be a National Insurance Number (NINO). Where, for any reason, a NINO is not available, there are prescribed alternatives that can be used. Should it be necessary, Holden & Partners may contact clients regarding any further information that is needed to generate a personal LEI. Any clients who are not contacted may assume that no further information is needed.
For trusts, companies, pension funds, charities, or unincorporated bodies, clients will need to obtain a LEI from the London Stock Exchange. Certain clients may have already received communication from a product provider, or obtained a LEI but, regardless, Holden & Partners will be contacting all clients individually to ensure that they such an identifier before January 2018 and to offer assistance to obtain it, should it be needed.